There is an unconscious racism at work in Canada—an ignorance of Aboriginal peoples and culture that breeds indifference to, and ambivalence about, Aboriginal poverty and ill health. Warry examines conservative arguments and mainstream views that promote assimilation and integration as the solution to Aboriginal marginalization. He argues that we must acknowledge our denial of colonialism in order to reach a deeper understanding of contemporary Aboriginal culture and identity, both on and off the reserve. Only then can we fully recognize Aboriginal peoples' rights and the path to self-determination. In short related essays Warry counters arguments found in mainstream academic and popular writing and critiques conservative attitudes from a perspective informed by social science research. From this viewpoint he examines colonialism and history, land claims and resource rights, culture and contemporary identity, urban Aboriginal communities, and the nature of self-government and Aboriginal citizenship.